Vitamins B is one of the most numerous, numbering more than twenty substances soluble in water. Their contribution to the normal functioning of the human body is invaluable. The lack of vitamin B can lead to significant disruptions in work.
Causes of lack of B vitamins
The main feature of substances belonging to the vitamins of this group is their property not to accumulate in the body, being derived from it together with the urine. This fact puts a person before a choice: either to constantly replenish their reserves and to feel excellent, or to feel their shortage, which is fraught with the development of various pathologies.
But there is also a feedback – the reasons for the lack of vitamins of group B – may lie in the pathologies already present in the patient’s body and negative effects.
Sources that can cause this deficiency are extensive, but we recall the most common:
- Studies have shown that in a situation where people are in a stressful situation, their needs for vitamin B1 increase by ten, while B2, B5, B6 begin to be “processed” by the body in a fivefold volume, which naturally requires their urgent replenishment.
- With the pathological damage of the digestive organs (gastritis, colitis) there is a failure in the process of synthesizing such substances, which also leads to their deficiency.
- Abnormalities in the work of the thyroid gland also lead to a pathological clinical picture. This applies to both reduced and increased enzyme production. Such a failure leads to a lack of B2.
- Avitaminosis can be a consequence of long-term treatment of certain pharmacological drugs. Especially this fact applies to sulfonamides, antidepressants, tetracycline antibiotics.
- The cause of the shortage can be the acidity of the stomach, that is, its insufficiency, which requires the need for additional B3.
- When using contraceptive hormonal agents in the role of contraceptives, the body begins to require a greater amount of vitamin B2.
- The processing of the substances under consideration is also enhanced with increased physical exertion.
- The female body feels a lack of substances during pregnancy.
- With inadequate and poorly balanced nutrition.
Symptoms of a lack of vitamins of group B
First of all, it is necessary to note a point that is especially troubling to the female population, is that with a shortage of substances from row B, women start to visually see the loss of attractiveness. Among other things, a person begins to suffer from various negative pathologies. Symptoms of a lack of vitamins of group B:
- Fatigue appears.
- A person becomes more emotionally unstable, not always adequately responding to various stimuli.
- You can observe a sleep disorder.
- Toxicosis of the first trimester of pregnancy.
The shortage of substances of this group can be visually observed on the condition of the skin:
- The epidermis plates begin to peel off.
- Hyperemic spots appear on the face.
- The condition of hair and nails deteriorates, they lose a healthy shine and become more brittle.
With a sufficiently significant lack of vitamins can develop more complex and dangerous diseases:
- Exacerbated or, on the contrary, pathological changes affecting the gastrointestinal tract begin to develop: gastritis, enterocolitis, ulcerative manifestations, colitis, and others.
- Diseases affecting the urogenital system.
- Severe forms of infectious diseases.
- Atonic constipation.
- Myocardial dystrophy.
- Various neuralgia.
- Uterine bleeding.
- Allergic reaction.
It should be noted that the lack of a specific vitamin has its own symptomatic feature. B1 has its pharmacological name – thiamine. Even a slight lack of it can cause:
- Increased fatigue.
- Memory problems
- Shortness of breath, which appears with even a slight load or movement.
- Trouble sleeping
- Power problems.
If a patient’s body is exposed to thiamine deficiency for a long time, the person begins to feel:
- Muscle weakness, which leads to uncertain walking, violation of statics.
- Palpation in the calf muscle pain is felt.
- Goose bumps appear in the lower and upper extremities.
- The transmission of implicit pulses is violated, in the formation of which B1 is involved.
- Exfoliation of the skin on the face.
- The appearance of “Zaid” in the corners of the lips (cracks).
- Eyelids blush.
- The number of barley is increasing.
- There is a violation of appetite.
- Visual impairment.
- The intensity of hemoglobin production decreases, which can lead to anemia.
- An emotional shift occurs due to the appearance of depressive states and irritability.
- The occurrence and progression of dermatitis.
- The appearance of a constant background sound in the ears (noise).
- There may be a problem with the desire to eat.
- The weakening of the protective forces, which leads to frequent acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI).
Nicotinic acid improves blood flow, reduces cholesterol plaques, and has a beneficial effect on the central nervous system. Consequently, with its shortage, it is precisely these areas that suffer. B4 in pharmacology is designated by the term choline.
- Its deficiency “hits” the metabolic processes occurring in the liver, and the transport of enzymes produced by it to the digestive organs is inhibited.
- There are problems with memory.
B5 in pharmacology is designated by the term pantothenic acid. Its shortage is quite rare, since B5 is present in small quantities in almost all foods. The main symptom of the lack of pantothenic acid is often manifested leaking limbs (and upper and lower). But its significant deficiency can cause severe pathologies of the brain, a large overweight, up to obesity and diseases of the mucous membrane.
B6 is also known as pyridoxine. He takes part in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, which include the “enzyme of happiness.” Hence, when there is a shortage of pyridoxine, there is:
- Inflammatory process affecting gum tissue.
- Appearance of dryness in mouth.
- Inhibition of both motor and emotional.
- Irritability may occur.
- Decreased appetite.
- Loss of sleep
- Violation of the synthesis of glycogen and red blood bodies.
- Dermatitis on the face, seborrheic nature.
With its shortage there is an aggravation of such diseases:
- Asthma attacks.
- Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
- Provokes the development of skin lesions.
- General weakness, drowsiness.
- Decreased appetite.
- The appearance of a depressive state.
- The emergence of nausea.
- There is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
- There is increased hair loss.
- Reduced vascular and muscle tone, which leads to a drop in blood pressure.
- Symptoms of conjunctivitis appear.
- The separation of the nail plates and fragility occurs.
- Possible exacerbation of psoriasis.
- Biotin deficiency can cause a breakdown of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism.
- There is pain in the muscles.
B8 – this substance is still hidden under the term inositol. In the case of its lack in the human body significant changes occur:
- The accumulation of fat cells in the liver.
- There are signs of a dermatological nature.
- The development of atherosclerosis is accelerated.
- Violation of the musculoskeletal system.
- Structural changes in the nerve receptors occur, leading to psychological problems.
B9 is a substance in medical and pharmacological circles known as folic acid. If the body does not receive a sufficient amount of this particular acid, people with such a deficiency begin to feel:
- Significant breakdown.
- Loss of appetite.
- The albuminous membrane of the eyes acquires a yellowish tint.
- Dyspnea appears even with minor loads.
- Anemia is rapidly developing.
- There are problems with skin and hair.
- This substance is actively involved in the synthesis of red blood cells, it is simply indispensable in the period of development and formation of the fetus. Therefore, its lack during pregnancy provokes a slowdown or complete arrest in the development of the embryo.
- Painful symptoms in the tongue and abdomen.
B10 has its pharmacological name – para-aminobenzoic acid. In the case of insufficient receipt of B10:
- There is a failure in the process of synthesis of red blood cells (red blood cells).
- There is a violation in the bowels. The disorder can lead to diarrhea, constipation, flatulence and other manifestations.
- The appearance of signs of anemia.
- Noticeable deficiency of paraaminobenzoic acid on the skin of a person.
- Increased fragility, loss and early graying of hair.
- Insufficient milk production in a nursing mother.
- Decreased libido.
B11 is the medical term carnitine. When carnitine deficiency is observed:
- Decreased muscle tone.
- Fast fatiguability.
- Malfunctions of the heart.
- The development of liver and kidney dysfunction.
- Slowing the breakdown of fat cells leads to the appearance of extra pounds and obesity.
B12 is also known as cobalamin. Takes part in the synthesis of red blood cells – red blood cells. Therefore, its lack can provoke:
- The appearance of dandruff.
- Increased bone and hair fragility.
- Fragility of blood vessels increases.
- There are signs of atherosclerosis.
- Disorder in the bowels.
- Emotional instability.
- Paresthesia in the legs.
- The appearance of pain in the calf muscles.
Treatment of a lack of vitamins of group B
Predominantly, treatment of a lack of vitamins of group B is carried out on an outpatient basis. First of all, to compensate for the lack of nutrients, the diet is adjusted, which must include foods rich in one or another vitamin. Therefore, the fuller and more diverse the human table, the less likely the development of beriberi and deficiency of a particular substance.
If any circumstances have led to a shortage of a certain vitamin, or the disease has worsened, which a certain substance of the vitamin group can help overcome, then medical drugs (analogs of natural vitamins) are prescribed, which more rapidly carry out replenishment, as well as with the complex treatment of a specific pathology, maintain efficacy effects of drugs from other pharmacological groups.
Preparations for vitamin B deficiency
The modern pharmacological industry simply “flooded” the shelves of pharmacies of various kinds of synthesized, semi-synthetic and natural vitamins and vitamin-mineral complexes. Therefore, if the problem is not so significant as to support the patient’s body, the doctor may prescribe such a complex. For example, it can be materna, pick, undovit, vitrum, benfogamma and many others.
- Materna is a vitamin-mineral complex specially designed for pregnant women or women who are only planning to conceive. Reception regimen – one tablet once a day. If necessary, this dosage can be adjusted by a doctor.
If there is a shortage of a certain substance of vitamin B, then the doctor prescribes his patient more specific drugs for vitamin B deficiency.
With a deficiency of B1, such drugs as thio-vitamin, thiamine, aneurinum, thiamine pyrophosphate will help to fill its shortage effectively.
The drug is administered to the patient in various ways. What method to choose decides only the attending physician. Depending on the clinical picture, B1 can be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously or orally.
The daily dosage of this vitamin is due to gender, as well as age.
For men, the daily amount of B1 is from 1.2 to 2.1 mg. A woman should receive it in the range from 1.1 to 1.5 mg, while during pregnancy this dosage increases by 0.4 mg, and during lactation by 0.6 mg. Older people should consume daily from 1.2 to 1.4 mg of thiamine. For babies, the dosage consumed depends on age and falls in the range of 0.3 to 1.5 mg.
Starting parenteral intake must begin with a small dosage and, with adequate tolerability, the amount administered can be increased, the dosage of the drug being administered varies, and depending on the active ingredient. For example, when a solution of thiamine chloride is prescribed for adults, 20–50 mg is administered, and when a solution of thiamine bromide is administered, 30–60 mg is administered once daily.
For children, this ratio is thiamine chloride – 12.5 mg or thiamine bromide – 15 mg.
The duration of the treatment course can be from 10 to 30 days.
At the same time, other drugs, which are based on the B vitamins, can be injected into the treatment protocol.
When there is a shortage of vitamin B2, in addition to good nutrition, the doctor prescribes such drugs as riboflavin, beflavin, lactobene, betavitam, vitamin B2, ribovin, ovoflavin, vitaplex B2, lactoflavin, flavitol, vitaflavin, beflavit, flavoxin.
The drug is administered orally for an adult patient, 5 to 10 mg per day. If the condition of the patient is severe, then this dose may be increased and taken 10 mg three times throughout the day. The duration of treatment is from two weeks to one and a half months.
Young patients, depending on age, the drug is administered in a dosage of 2 to 5 mg, and with a severe clinical picture and up to 10 mg per day.
The necessary reasonable daily dosage is for adults – about 2.5 mg, for people whose work is associated with heavy physical exertion – up to 3 mg. Newborn half a year to a year – 0.6 mg. To babies whose age falls into the interval:
- from one to one and a half – 1.1 mg;
- from one and a half to two – 1.2 mg;
- two to four 1.4 mg;
- from four to six – 1.6 mg;
- six to ten — 1.9 mg;
- 11 to 13, 2.3 mg;
- from 14 to 17 (young men) – 2.5 mg;
- from 14 to 17 (girls) – 2.2 mg.
Treatment with a deficiency of vitamin B3 is reduced to the appointment of the drug nicotinamide, the active substance of which is nicotinic acid. Or its analoguespelmina, benikod, nikamid, aminicotin, niacinamide, endobion, nikofort, bepella, niacevit, nikotop.
The drug nicotinamide is administered after a meal in a dosage of 15-25 mg for adult patients and 5-10 mg for children. Usually given two doses during the day.
Oral nicotinic acid is administered in an amount of 50 mg per day.
Every day a healthy body should receive at least 4 g of vitamin B4, in a stressful situation, this figure rises to 6 mg. Suitable drugs gliatilin, choline.
Adults of the patient are assigned one capsule throughout the day with food. The duration of treatment is up to a month.
With a deficiency in the body of a patient Pantothenic acid or B5. The daily need for an adult organism in this substance is 5 mg, and for heavy physical exertion, up to 7 mg. For young children, this indicator is 2 ml, for schoolchildren, 4 mg.
- Lack of vitamin B6 is filled by taking the drug pyridoxine-hydrochloride or pyridoxine.
Drugs for prophylactic purposes are taken in a daily dosage: adults – 2 to 5 mg; children – 2 mg.
For therapeutic purposes: adults – 20 – 30 mg one – two times throughout the day; small patients – the dose is prescribed by the attending doctor depending on the child’s body weight.
Pyridoxine in solutions is administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously: for children – 20 mg per day; adults – 50-100 mg per diem.
Course duration from two weeks to a month. If necessary, after the break, the course can be repeated.
In the case when there is a shortage of vitamin B7, a specialist can prescribe such a medicine as biotin, or its analogues, volvit, femicode, selencin, deacur, beauty, perfectil, medobiotin, vitrum, Aleran, and Imedin.
- Biotin is prescribed two tablets in the process of eating, once during the day.
If studies have shown that the patient suffers from a B8 deficiency, he begins to receive inositol, inositol. Its daily dosage for an adult is 1-1.5 g. In the treatment, the daily dosage is from 0.6 to 2.4 g. The starting amount is 0.6 – 0.8 g, which gradually increases with normal tolerance of the drug.
With a deficiency of vitamin B9, the attending doctor enters folic acid or its analogues in the treatment protocol: mamifol, askofol, folacin, foliber.
The starting dose of the drug is for children and adults 1 mg per diem. Subsequently, with normal tolerance, this amount is increased, bringing to adults up to 5 mg, for children – at the discretion of the attending physician.
The duration of treatment is up to a month.
- When diagnosing B10 deficiency, the doctor must enter the patient with para-aminobenzoic acid, the dosage of which is 0.1-0.5 g three to four times during the day. The duration of therapy is 20 days.
When there is a shortage of vitamin B11 (carnitine), drugs are prescribed with its basic component.
The daily need for this substance corresponds to the figures from 0.3 to 1.5 g, depending on the age of the patient and his need to engage in heavy physical or mental labor.
- Carnitine is injected intravenously, in the absence of allergy to the drug, the dose is 5 to 10 ml of 10% solution, which is diluted immediately before infusion with 200 ml of 0.9% sodium chloride solution.
In capsule form, take one twice throughout the day.
The lack of vitamin B12 in the body can be cured by cyanocobalamin, vibicon, vitamin B12, astamine B12, astavit B12, dankavit B12, and others.
- Cyanocobalamin is taken as an intravenous solution. The prescribed amount of the drug is 0.1-0.2 mg once a day. In this case, the medication is provided a day before the onset of remission. If necessary, the dosage of the drug can be changed to a daily intake of 0.1-0.5 mg. Mostly the treatment course is ten days.
Nutrition with a lack of vitamins of group B
Products are the main source of energy, vitamins and minerals, which are directly involved in all processes in the body. Therefore, food with a lack of vitamins of group B should capture all those products that are able to replenish their daily supply. Since each vitamin has its preferential preferences, therefore, let us consider which foods are richest in one or another substance.
Meat, offal: brains, kidneys, liver.
Whole grain, black bread.
Groats: brown rice, buckwheat, barley, oatmeal, semolina.
Plants of the legume family: peas, beans.
Fresh egg yolk.
In a small amount of butter.
Sweet pepper, spinach, Brussels sprouts, potatoes.
50% of thiamine is broken down by heat treatment and freezing.
Meat and liver: kidneys, liver, heart.
Dairy and dairy foods: hard cheese, cream, milk, cottage cheese, kefir, butter and others.
Cereal cereals: buckwheat and oatmeal.
Rye flour, confectionery and brewer’s yeast.
Coffee beans, black tea.
Spinach, another leaf lettuce
Meat: poultry, fatty pork, lamb, veal.
Offal: kidneys, brains, liver (beef), heart.
Nuts, the best hazelnuts and oxen (walnut).
A little less:
Groats: buckwheat, barley.
Vegetables: white cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, eggplants, asparagus, carrots, tomatoes, sweet peppers, garlic.
Peaches, melons and apricots.
Sweets reduce the content of B3 in the human body. Freezing does not affect this vitamin, whereas half of B3 “leaves” during heat treatment.
Meat, fish, eggs.
Dairy products, especially cottage cheese.
Herbal decoctions: mother and stepmother, plantain, St. John’s wort, yarrow, chicory, dandelion.
Baker’s and brewer’s yeast.
Liver, kidneys, other offal.
Whole grain bread, unrefined grain.
Dishes from uncrushed croup.
Raw egg yolk.
Salad vegetables and green parts of cultivated plants: tops of carrots, onions, radishes, radishes.
Turkey meat and fish.
Royal jelly bee.
Meat: rabbit meat, chicken and lamb.
Yeast and wheat bread.
Nuts: peanuts, walnuts.
Porridges: barley, wheat, barley.
Vegetables: cauliflower and red cabbage, garlic, potatoes, tomatoes.
Baked goods from coarse flour.
Beef liver, heart, kidney.
Fresh yolk chicken eggs.
Nuts: almonds, peanuts, walnuts.
Peas and carrots.
Orange and apple.
Somewhat fewer in:
Cottage cheese and other fermented milk products.
Grape and plum.
White cabbage, cauliflower.
In unpolished rice.
Meat of veal and pork.
Wheat germ and bran.
Fish caviar and fish.
Whole grains and other whole grains.
Sesame and butter from it.
From vegetables: various cabbage, carrots, onions.
Berries and fruits: watermelons, blackberries, grapefruit, gooseberries, citrus, raisins, nutmeg.
All offal: liver, brain (calf), kidney.
Legumes: peas, beans.
Beer and baker’s yeast.
Any cheeses: processed, rennet, hard.
Fish caviar and fish (horse mackerel, tuna, cod, salmon).
Porridges: oatmeal, barley, oatmeal, buckwheat, millet.
Vegetables: carrots, pumpkin, eggplants, asparagus, cabbage, sweet red pepper, beets, tomatoes, cucumbers, lentils.
Fruits and vegetables: bananas, oranges, currants, apricots, strawberries, watermelon, avocado, cantaloupe, peach, raspberry, rosehip
Greens: spinach, lettuce, onions.
Nuts: peanuts, almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts.
Herbal crops: peppermint and lemon, millennial, dandelion, birch, nettle, plantain.
Chicken meat, beef, lamb, pork.
By-products: kidneys, liver.
Nuts and seeds (sunflower).
Bran (wheat, oat, rice) and whole grain products.
Vegetables: carrots, vegetable leafy greens, potatoes, cabbage.
Poultry, pork, lamb, beef.
But it should be remembered that under the influence of high temperatures a certain amount of the vitamin substance is destroyed. Based on this, the daily rate of B11 only food is difficult to fill.
Fish: salmon, herring, sardine, flounder, trout, halibut, cod.
Seafood: shrimps, squid, scallops, oysters, crayfish.
Meat: chicken, beef. By-products: lungs, liver, brains, heart, kidneys, and liver pate. Eggs (raw yolk).
Soy and sea kale.
Dairy and fermented milk products.
Prevention of vitamin B deficiency
Avitominoz, as many diseases and pathological abnormalities are much easier to prevent than to subsequently deal with their consequences. Prevention of a lack of vitamins of group B is voiced by such recommendations:
- The first, and perhaps most important, is the normalization and balance of the diet. Products that come to the table of a person should overlap the daily rate of the entire range of vitamins necessary for the healthy functioning of the body.
- Maintain a healthy lifestyle. No smoking, alcohol and drugs.
- Exclude hypodynamia. Movement is life.
- When the first signs of beriberi appear, review the menu, consult a dietitian or your doctor.
- Undergo periodic preventive courses, drinking vitamin – mineral complexes. This is especially true in the spring – autumn period, during postoperative rehabilitation or infection of the body.
Prediction of vitamin B deficiency
Many believe that the lack of vitamin – mineral complex is an unpleasant, but not fatal fact. Indeed, this deficiency will not lead to death, but ignoring it can provoke the development of more serious and serious diseases. Therefore, the prognosis of a lack of vitamins of group B, with an irresponsible attitude to their health, can be very ambiguous, with a negative color.
But if a person leads the right lifestyle, taking care of a varied balanced diet, even with a slight lack of one or another vitamin, it will be enough for him to simply adjust his diet a little and the balance will easily be restored.
If the deficiency of vitamins of series B is essential and one cannot do without a specialist’s help, one should not ignore this help. Analysis of the clinical picture, the appointment of the necessary supporting drugs and the prognosis of vitamin therapy is obviously favorable, and a positive result can be observed immediately after the start of therapeutic treatment.
The human body is a complex biological mechanism and for its normal operation a sufficientamount of various vitamins is necessary, since each of them is a valuable link in the general physio – biological chain. And the lack of vitamins of group B significantly affects its work, causing malfunctions in functioning, which can be fraught, without taking appropriate measures for stopping, serious complications.
First of all, the person himself must take care of his health by analyzing his diet and introducing corrections into it. Meals should be varied and complete, capturing a wide range of different foods. But if the signs of beriberi nevertheless appear, you should seek help from a qualified specialist who will help with the preparation of the diet and, if necessary, prescribe the appropriate drugs.